Here we will discuss about correlation ID in SharePoint 2010. Also same way correlation ID is maintained in SharePoint 2016/2013 and also in SharePoint online. If some error occured in a page or site in SharePoint, most of times SharePoint returns a unique GUID as “correlation ID”. As a SharePoint developer you can take the correlation Id and search in the logs to get more information about the request.
SharePoint 2010 maintains logs in different areas. So it is very difficult to find what exactly the error is. But SharePoint provides a id which is known as correlation ID which is nothing but a GUID that is assigned to each conversation a user does or a SharePoint process does.
A site collection administrator can take the correlation id and search in the trace log to know where exactly the error occurred.
Just to remember for each entry in the trace log it contains a Correlation ID. A SharePoint administrator can view ULS logs using PowerShell with the correlation ID to track more information about the request. Even administrators can use SharePoint LogViewer to retrieve logs from in SharePoint 2013/2010/2016. But normally your local SharePoint administrator will not be able to retrieve logs in SharePoint online.
Also that entry contains the correlation id and some meaningful error message.
The correlation ID is exposed when an error page is displayed, and throughout the trace logs.
Read SharePoint tutorial on: Write to ULS log using PowerShell in SharePoint 2013
The correlation ID is not an error number or code. Simply, it’s a GUID (globally unique identifier) that’s automatically generated for every request that the SharePoint server receives. It’s unique to each request, not each error. However when an error occurs, the error message contains the correlation ID that was valid for the request at the time.
The correlation ID is meant to be used to help a SharePoint Admin trace what was happening at the time of an error. It is only valuable as an interactive tool to help the Admin track down your error. An Admin uses the correlation ID as “breadcrumbs” to retrace a requests or processes in the SharePointUnified Logging System (ULS) to find what leads up to and causes a problem. If SharePoint gets an error that it can’t identify while working on that task, it posts an “Unexpected error has occurred” message, and includes the correlation ID. The correlation ID can help find out what happened but doesn’t identify what happened.
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