1. Visual Web parts resides in Control Templates "C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\Web Server Extensions\14\TEMPLATE\CONTROLTEMPLATES". Check for the subfolder with your proj name in ControlTemplates folder. VS 2010 by default makes a subfolder with your project name and puts the control inside it.
2. Standard webparts resides in Web part Gallery on the Site Setting Page of your site collection.
I hope it helps!
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